Arkansas` retroactive laws, which transferred all ownership of the State Bank to Arkansas, thereby preventing the bank from honoring its unpaid bills, which were payable to its owner upon demand, affected the bank`s contractual rights and were void. Between 1798 and the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, several states threatened or attempted to strike down various federal laws. None of these efforts have been legally supported. The Kentucky and Virginia resolutions were rejected by the other states. The Supreme Court rejected attempts to overturn it in a series of 19th-century decisions, including Ableman v. Booth, who opposed Wisconsin`s attempt to repeal the Fugitive Slave Act. The civil war put an end to most cancellation efforts. A Massachusetts law requiring parental consent for an abortion for a woman under the age of 18 and providing for a court order authorizing abortion for cause if parental consent is denied violates the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. 337. Agreement: Consolidated Flour Mills Co. v.
Muegge, 278 U. p. 559 (1928), invalidating a service similar to that authorized by Oklahoma law. Virginia re-established the authority of the Supreme Court in Cohens v. Virginia, 19 U.S. (6 wheat) 264 (1821). The issue was whether the Supreme Court had the power to hear an appeal in a criminal case tried by a state court for violation of a state law if the defense was based on federal law. The Virginia legislature passed resolutions declaring that the Supreme Court had no authority over it because of the principles of state sovereignty. The Supreme Court has held that under Article III of the Constitution, federal courts have jurisdiction over all matters involving the Constitution or federal law, including state cases in which a federal defence arises. Since the defendants in the case asserted that their actions were authorized by federal law, there was a controversial issue of federal law and the Supreme Court had the power to review the state court`s decision. Thus, the Supreme Court again ruled that the final power to interpret federal law rests with the federal courts, not the states. Although a New York bankruptcy law could be used to settle a debt incurred after the enactment of such a law, the law could not be enforced extraterritorially to the extent that a debt must be collected from a citizen of another state who is convinced, whether in federal court or in the courts of other states. A district court decision invalidating Indiana`s parental consent to abortion for minors during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy is summarily upheld. A district court decision declaring Arizona`s one-year residency requirement for public hospital treatment unconstitutional is summarily upheld. A Virginia law that authorized an administrative officer to require railroads to remove grade crossings if he or she felt such changes were necessary to promote public safety and convenience, and that did not provide railroads with notice or hearing of the existence of such a need and the opportunity to review the official`s decision, violated due process. An Arkansas law and a Commission order requiring an interstate carrier to deliver without delay, at the request of a local shipper, the number of freight cars requested for loading, and imposing severe penalties for non-compliance, regardless of the impact of that request on its interstate traffic, imposed an invalid and unreasonable load on interstate commerce. Since the American Railway Association`s rules regarding the availability of a member airline`s cars for interstate shipments were a matter of federal regulation, it was not within the jurisdiction of a state court to rule on their sufficiency. A Kentucky law that made the registration of mortgages that do not mature within five years conditional on the payment of a 20-cent tax on every $100 secured value, but exempted mortgages owed within that period, was void because it denied the same protections of the laws. A South Dakota law requiring a foreign company to appoint a local agent who accepted service of the claim as a condition precedent to bringing an action in state courts to recover an interstate trade claim imposed an invalid charge on that business.
As noted above, the courts have rejected both the annulment and the interposition. Three congressional districts created by Texas law represent racist gerrymanders who are unconstitutional under the equality clause. The District Court correctly held that race trumps legitimate considerations of district election, including incumbentship, and therefore rigorous scrutiny applies. None of the three districts is narrowly designed to serve a compelling state interest. The refusal to grant a free trial record to an indigent defendant under a Washington law authorizing a trial judge to provide a copy to an indigent defendant if, in the judge`s opinion, “justice is so promoted,” was deprived of equal protection and due process because the destitute defendant did not have the same opportunity as them, who could afford the protocols for their case to be heard by an appeals court. A Missouri congressional district law is unconstitutional because population deviations from the exact mathematical equality between districts were not inevitable. A Wisconsin law that levies a tax on gross income from domestic insurance companies was void if the income was earned in part as interest on U.S. bonds. A Pennsylvania law prohibiting the use of low-quality materials in bedding, even if sterilized, was so arbitrary and inappropriate that it violated due process guarantees. A Wisconsin law that requires a court license to marry for every resident who has minor children in their care and who is subject to a court order to assist, and that makes authorization conditional on proof that the support obligation has been fulfilled and that the children are not and are unlikely to be publicly charged, violates the equality clause. A section of the California Foreign Land Act, which provided that if the state had proved in a lawsuit for violation of that law the use or occupation by a foreign tenant considered in the indictment to be an alien not eligible for naturalization, the burden of proof of citizenship shifts to the defense, was arbitrary and violated due process. as applied to the tenant, because a lease of land gives no indication of a crime and it is not necessary in practice to exempt law enforcement from the obligation to prove Japanese race.
If a railroad has already provided adequate accommodations at some point, a Missouri order requiring interstate trains to stop at that point has placed an invalid and unreasonable burden on interstate commerce. In addition, a Missouri law that lost the right of an authorized foreign airline to operate a local business when it filed a right of action in federal court imposed an unconstitutional condition.